], 1905. Sometimes, itâs an invitation. Tumu-po as source of the night world is no other than Kumu-([u]li-)po of the Hawaiian prayer chant. . . A younger woman of the same name, granddaughter by his daughter Kauwaʻa of that Alapaʻi who was at one time ruling chief of the island of Hawaii, married John Young the younger, later premier under Kamahameha III. The “Woman who ate before and behind” in Tahiti becomes Laʻilaʻi, the “Woman who sat sideways” of the Kumulipo. . A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. Most puzzling to the uninitiated today is the passion for puns together with a double court usage of words destined to land the translator in unexpected pitfalls as he ventures along unfamiliar ways obscured by so rich a verbiage of language. 12-16, 17. .” Every first-born of a ruling chief took, to quote Fornander, the name Wakea: O Wakea ka inoa, o ke kumu aliʻi keia o Waloa, reads the text.1 The word Wa-loa I take to be a contraction of Waʻa-loa, “Long-canoe,” and the whole phrase, left untranslated in Fornander, to mean that he is “a male of the chief stock.” The canoe is, like the plant-stalk, a symbol in riddling speech of the male procreative organ. . Text is without commas; Ku is here followed. Each year when the sun turned its course northward and warmth and quiet weather prevailed, there returned to his worshipers this procreative force, the beneficent god of the Makahiki. The eight-armed octopus, called in the Kumulipo the. 14. corded sources.10 Their appearance in the heavens directly after the birth of Wakea has ended the “shutting out of light” agrees with the New Zealand myth, where the covering of the naked expanse of Sky with the heavenly bodies and of Earth with vegetation follows the pushing upward of the sky to let in the light. O Kane a Kapokinikini ka pou, o Kiʻi ka mahu, 698. This obscurity of language is why the Hawaiian taunts the foreigner who tries to interpret his lore. . To Kaulele tradition gives a rank above that of her half-brother and a corresponding place as co-ruler with him. However, none was available in English when Martha Beckwith completed her own translation and detailed study, first published in 1951 by the University of Chicago Press. 259-60; Lyons, Journal of the Polynesian Society, II, 56; Kamakau, Ke Au Okoa, March 31, 1869. That is the way the mind works under a deterministic priesthood: “In Adamʻs fall, We sinned all.” It may be that death became inevitable when the first child born to Wakea by his daughter came into the world a foetus. The word ana probably refers to the cave dwelling of Hina familiar to Maui stories; one such is still pointed out on the mountainside back of Waianae village on Oahu. . . There is no other explanation except the memory of the old faith held by this race that the chiefs are offspring and descendants of the ruling gods of Po, those who have power over the heavens and the earth. Honolulu, 1930. The boast of divine origin put forth in the chant of his rival Kualiʻi of Oahu is said to be an attempt to offset the prestige derived by Keawe from the long lineage claimed for his family stock in the Kumulipo. . A period of intermarriage follows among her posterity: literally, they increase “by forty thousand and by four thousand” (he kini, he mano) corresponding to the sacred numbering of the lesser gods invoked in temple prayers. 4 vols. . To Native Hawaiians, kalo is supreme in importanceâit is defined in the Kumulipo, or Hawaiian Creation Chant, as the plant from which Hawaiians were formed. . . O kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 76. This is the flying place of the bird Halulu, Of Kiwaʻa, the bird that cries over the canoe house, Birds that fly in a flock shutting out the sun, The earth is covered with the fledgelings of the night breaking into dawn, The time when the dawning light spreads abroad. Born was Laʻiʻoloʻolo and lived at Kapapa, Born was Kamahaʻina the first-born, a male, 680. This is the “theme” or. He had been a great warrior but at this time is described as “a little old man, of an emaciated figure; his eyes exceedingly sore and red, and his body covered with a white leprous scurf.” Another priest, described by King as “a tall young man with a long beard,” also took part in the chanting. It would be interesting to connect the ode with the introduction of the taboos, the crouching, or even the “burning taboo.”. He grows to be a lad, still within the “shell” out of which he has formed a sky for the new land. We also found that it was a title belonging to a person of great rank and power in the island, who resembles pretty much the Delai Lama of the Tartars, and the celestial emperor of Japan.”, The stone platform is still standing that marks the site of the heiau to which the priests of Lono conducted Cook and his companion for the ceremony of chanting and offerings appropriate to the welcome of a god. The spread of the rat family over the land and their nibbling habits as described in the chant are interpreted by one of Dr. Beckwithʻs native assistants as “symbolic of the rise of new lines of chiefs under whom taboos multiplied” and under whom parcels of land were alienated from their former owners. It took place in “the land of Lua.” The word means “cave” or “pit,” and we at once connect the place with stories of the ʻOlohe or pit-dwellers already alluded to. tale telling how Maui learned from the red-headed mudhens the secret of fire-making by the use of fire sticks is conspicuously absent from the enumeration here of Mauiʻs exploits. Tales from the Barrio and Beyond. . . The reaction upon outsiders and then that upon the injured husband is indicated by playing first upon the k sound to express precise forms of inarticulate disapproval in the head-shaking and kluck-klucking of the court gossips, then upon sounds in m combined with u to give the mood of sulky silence preserved at first by the husband when he begins to suspect the truth of the matter. O ke Akua ke komo, ʻaʻoe komo kanaka, 214. . ], 585. WILLIAM WYATT. As Wakea, the sky world, bursts the bonds of night and rises out of the womb of waters where it has lain in. that he opened first, became his house, the dome of the godʻs. In text the o meaning “of” here is not repeated. . . VII. Always in the stories there is a thief who robs the patch or cuts the cords of the net in which his foodstuffs have been stored away. Birth proceeds by the pairing of earth, the female, with sky, the male. 2. ]9, At Kahuluʻu was the afterbirth [deposited], at Waikane the navel cord. . HAWAIIAN ACCOUNTS OF CREATION . Kava drink made of the black-stemmed variety is sacred to the “gods.” The “bamboo” may be the knife used for the rite of incision, perhaps similarly limited to the chief class. REFERENCES . From the blood and afterbirth born of the union with the reincarnated goddess come the spawn of fish in March and the jellyfish of the sea. O kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 231. . They are aggressive and “leap to the heavens” (lele pu i ka lani), meaning perhaps that they push their claim to rank. Ku omits lines 141-43, 145-47, 153-55, 157, 158, 161, 164, 166, 173, 174, 191, 192, 197, 198, 209, 210, 215, 216, 221, 222, 251, 252, 262-67, and all refrains after the first. From this point four hundred more pairs carry the genealogy of the elder line to Po-laʻa. . referred to a lullaby that Kawena Pukui remembers her grandmother singing, Toss, toss, hush Queen Liliuokalani is more specific. dowed their gods with the passions of men just as they gave their chiefs the honors of gods during life, and after death set them up as gods. London, 1936. Laʻilaʻi, a woman in the time when men multiplied, Lived as a woman of the time when men multiplied, Born was Groping-one [Hahapoʻele], a girl, Born was Beautiful [Maila] called Clothed-in-leaves [Lopala-pala], [At] that place called “pit of the 'Olohe”, Born was Creeping-ti-plant [Laʻiʻolo] to man, Born was Midnight [Poʻele-i], born First-light [Poʻele-a], Opening-wide [Wehi-loa] was their youngest. Paliuli names an ever verdant land of the gods where abundant food grows without labor. POSITION in old Hawaii, both social and political, depended in the first instance upon rank, and rank upon blood descent—hence the importance of genealogy as proof of high ancestry. Genealogy chants such as this one are revered in Hawaii as they affirm the connections between people and the land upon which they live. 7. . The train of walruses passing by [? XVI. Kiaʻi ia e ke Kalo-manauea noho i uka, 58. Kupihea illustrated by the gurgling sounds made in emptying a gourd filled with water according to the size of the aperture at its mouth, sounds which the pupil in the art of chanting was taught to imitate in order to gain control of the long vibration upon open or closed vowel sounds at the end of a phrase, an achievement considered the high point in a professional reciterʻs technique; but I do not know whether this is a universal practice. Moʻolelo Hawaii, pp. kaona called the dominant characteristic of native art—the more deftly hidden, the more delightful to those who catch the application.3 The meaning of a separate passage must hence be referred for its interpretation to this double significance, often to the meaning of the chant as a whole, and this, as we shall presently see, is a subject for argument in the case of the Kumulipo even among Hawaiians themselves who are familiar to some extent with the requirements of old poetic style. BUCK, PETER (TE RANGI HIROA). Judge Fornander died in 1887, and his notes on the subject. In the sea world bright-colored opule fish play, “the sea is thick with them.” Their persistent gulping and swallowing (monimoni) when at the surface links with the words kolomio and miomio for their disappearance under sea in a swift dive. The obscure treatment of the courting story is a good illustration of poetic courtly style. . Firth, Work of the Gods in Tikopia, p. 260. Judge Fornander understands the system slightly differently. Close attention is still required from the reader, certainly if one is unfamiliar with the mythology and its characters, but the effort is richly rewarded. The gods Kane. . 122.) in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, Vol. Here again the poet shapes his story of beginnings upon similar basic conceptions. . . Man for the narrow stream, woman for the broad stream, Born is the Opeope jellyfish living in the sea, Guarded by the Oheohe [bamboo] living on land, 461. Born is the Paka eel, born is the Papa [crab] in the sea there swimming, Born is the Kalakala, born the Huluhulu [sea slug] in the sea there swimming, Born is the Halahala, born the Palapala in the sea there swimming, Born is the Peʻa [octopus], born is the Lupe [sting ray] in the sea there swimming, Born is the Ao, born is theʻAwa [milkfish] in the sea there swimming, 150. . And when the bards had composed their meles satisfactorily (a holo na mele), they were imparted to the hula dancers to be committed to memory. Equally on the common tongue, although stoutly repudiated by the Moʻolelo Hawaii and called “doubtful” by Malo, was the story of Wakeaʻs desire for his youthful daughter, the plan to allay Papaʻs suspicions by instituting taboo nights when men should live apart from their wives, Papaʻs discovery, her repudiation of Wakea and her taking a mate in another land, finally her return to Wakea upon hearing that he, too, had solaced himself with another wife.2 A famous chant of Kamehamehaʻs day tells the story under the figure of the “birth of islands,” symbolizing by means of the various alliances of the two parents in the myth the actual rise of ruling chief families on the islands of the Hawaiian group.3 The sly sobriquet of “Wakea” said to have been attached to the Ka-ʻI-ʻi-mamao to whom the Kumulipo chant was allegedly dedicated, who took his own daughter to wife, further shows the myth to have been current at the time that the prose note to the Kumulipo was written down. This chant/mele shows Lonoikamakahiki's genealogy back to the beginning of time! Abraham Fornander, presumably unfamiliar with the Kumulipo, unwittingly accepted the amalgamation as having been preserved for generations in the Hawaiian oral tradition. The head gods have great power (mana) in heaven and on earth. Taboo was intercourse with the divine parent, 1805. 4. . . The publication of her translation is a milestone in Polynesian research, and for folklorists and anthropologists who wish to learn something of Polynesian chants and their function in the culture, this book on the most famous chant of all is a fascinating and illuminating introduction to the subject. The vavana have to do with the development of the child and their recitation is open to all. . From her home on the mountain ridges she sends a drought. . Smith, The Lore of the Whare-wananga, pp. . CEREMONIAL BIRTH CHANTS IN POLYNESIA . . . . attempt? Nevertheless the description of style fits the Hawaiian to the letter and that of the content supplies a strong argument for Pokini Robinsonʻs view of the Kumulipo as based upon the progress of a child from birth to maturity. It at last burst and produced three layers superimposed one below propping two above. . . And the light was called The-wide-light-made-by-Kane. 1. . There is no reason to suppose that Hawaiian chants of beginning would follow the exact pattern in content and meaning laid down by the Marquesan. O ke Akua ke komo, ʻaʻoe komo kanaka, 341. The Maui figure, sometimes represented as a son of the Tagaroa family, is “eight-headed” in Tahiti, “eighth born” in Samoa.14 In the Marquesas, according to Handy, “an octopus, or if one could not be obtained, a taro root with eight rootlets was used ceremonially in certain rites.”. 2. The Morning Star Rises. . in the nature of a charm. . She conceives a child, and her husband, far from taking the affair badly as in the Wakea chant, recognizes the offspring of a god and rejoices to have “found our lord.”1 One recognizes here a euphemized variant of the subterfuge used by Tiki to gain access to his daughter by the sand woman as told in the Stimson manuscript from the Tuamotus. So White enumerates the “acts” of Maui under the term patunga.5 The first contest is against his own kindred, those who seem to be guarding Hinaʻs virginity. Maui has now concluded his ninth adventure, and from this point the numbering becomes confused. To the god Tane is ascribed power to cause the growth of vegetation. The babyʻs paternal grandmother gave him another name when the Kumulipo was chanted at the temple to dedicate him and institute the highest taboos honoring him. Tu, the first-born, is god of breadfruit and “principal functioning god of Mangareva.” She then leaves Tagaroa, and he takes to wife the daughter of the “fisherman” Tane. The difficult question of the compounds with po I have met by referring each to its probable meaning as a personified generative agent or as a time element and have capitalized or not accordingly. . Prayer of Dedication. The priest had said at the time of Ka-ʻI-ʻi-mamaoʻs death that Lono would come again, that is, Ka-ʻI-ʻi-mamao, and would return by sea on the canoes ʻAuwaʻalalua. Such a device was used in handling one of the huge kites of ancient days and I am told is employed today by fishermen off Lahaina to get a squid to shore too big to handle otherwise. The exploits of the rat child Piko'i recall the tall tales of our own storytellers.1 On the other hand, a native kahuna recently condemned a new-built house to vacancy by calling the shape devised for the doorway a “rat's nest,” and the ancient priest Paao again and again refuses fish caught for sacrifice on the basis of the same ominous analogy.2, Today the native rat, Rattus hawaiiensis, no longer lives save on small islets cut off from the main land. . Not this chief or that was the unique god of the Makahiki. Hanau ke Kupou, hanau ke Kupoupou i ke kai la holo, 161. . But his elders must have interfered; the box disappeared before the test was completed.2. in his Majestyʻs Ships the Resolution and Discovery . O ke Akua ke komo, ʻaʻoe komo kanaka, 262. Queen Liliuokalani in 1897 published the first English translation of the chant which she made while held a prisoner during the unsettled period after she had been deposed and revolutionary forces were at work to place the Islands under the United States Government. To reissue Beckwithʻs translation of the Kumulipo is to make readily available once more a truly native Hawaiian composition. Living witnesses today report men with dogsʻ heads marching in the ghostly processions of dead warriors returned to revisit their old haunts on earth, whose apparition is not uncommon among Hawaiians or is even reported by foreign-born mystics. A couplet follows voicing an aphorism consistent with Kukahiʻs distinction between the separate worlds for gods and men: The way [te ara] for the god [no te atua] is below [ki te po]; The way for man [te tangata] is above [ki te ao]. . O ke Akua ke komo, ʻaʻoe komo kanaka, 461. . . The Opuʻupuʻu branch of the twelfth section closes with his birth: “Wakea lived (noho) with Haumea, with Papa, with Haohokakalani [commonly written Hoʻohokukalani], Haloa was born,” reads the passage. . The Hawaiian Word of the Day is Kumulipo. The shining of the “sun” (la) she refers to the dim opening of the childʻs eyes to the light. The effect of such loose matrimonial relations in a land where inherited blood counted above all things in establishing the perquisites of rank is to be seen in the dual pattern of court genealogies, where an unbroken line of descent often depends upon the female when a male parent fails. The Hon. This was the meaning of the word “mamao” [“far off,” hence “removed,” that is, high in rank] added to the first half of the name. . Both were born in Hawaii, and no legend tells of either of them sailing away with a promise to return. The vitality of the poetic imagery arouses deep emotional response. Chants chronicle the people, places and events that make Hawaii, Hawaii. . Fornander, Collection (“Memoirs,” No. from the period of darkness (Po) and they each had a star. . E hoʻohana i kēia kikokikona no ka huli ʻana i It is in this form that in New Zealand he visits his ancestors in the underworld. . Each reader of the Kumulipo, like each listener in former times, will find his own meaning in it or in parts of it. Honolulu, 1938. The Heavenly-one who joined together the island. Eventually they separate, their parents to enlarge space for living, and raise the sky upward, a story fully elaborated also in Tahiti but hardly recognized in the Kumulipo. . XXII. Unfortunately Kingʻs full description of the occasion neither confirms nor disproves the tradition. The gist of the story seems to be that the woman left the land of “the gods in the heavens” and life with her legitimate mate to wed a mere mortal on earth, whose offspring, half-god, half-man, are known as the ruddy-faced, bearded stock traditionally known as “children of Kiʻi” and today connected with the family of the volcano goddess Pele, who thus becomes a fourth in the variations upon the part played by mother Eve in the Hawaiian genesis drama. He distinguishes the literal interpretation—that of the creation of light and life on earth—from the symbolic, to be found also in the story of the first man Kumu-honua (“Source-of-earth”) and the first woman, Lalo-honua (“Earth-beneath-the-surface”), the two called in this chant Kumu-lipo (“Source-of-profundity”) and Poʻele (“Darkness”). . Honolulu, 1934. In the Kumulipo he is born in feathered form as a moa, generally translated “cock.” He makes a cry not like a human being but “like an animal” as the word Alala is defined. . Hanau ka Halahala, hanau ka Palapala i ke kai la holo, 148. It was indeed from two sons of Keawe by different mothers, not without later intertwinings of family relationship, that were descended the two lines who ruled over the united kingdom throughout the period of the monarchy from the opening of the nineteenth century to its last decade; on the one side the ruling house of the . She was Lono-ma-ʻI-kanaka. . In 1949, the Pacific Number of the Journal of American Folklore contained her brief paper (later partly incorporated and revised in her book), “Function and Meaning of the Kumulipo Birth Chant of Ancient Hawaii” (vol. ], [Where] the night ends for the children [of night] [? . The lines read: Bastian, who knew the text from the manuscript alone, was the first to attempt its analysis. He was given nicknames to mark important events in his career or traits of character that he developed. . O kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 237. . Little is known with any assurance of the court use. The first Hina comes floating to Wakea in the form of a bailing gourd, a trick familiar in South Sea story but there, so far as I know, always employed by a male shape-shifter to secure passage in a canoe already refused him.14 Taken into the canoe the bailer becomes a beautiful woman, hence called “Hina-the-bailer.” When he takes her home and “sets her by the fire,” a euphemism for the sex act, strange sea creatures are born. A species of kava plant called ʻava nene is prescribed to quiet a fretting (nene) child, and Kawena Pukui gives the following invocation to be used in its plucking: In a “family story” from the same informant a similar chant is addressed to an ancestral coconut called upon to provide a bridge for passing over seas. . The struggle with the sea monster here represents the obstructions put in his way, sometimes by the girl herself as the theme is developed in popular romance. ], Trace of the nibblings of these brown-coated ones, Born to the two, child of the Night-falling-away, Born to the two, child of the Night-creeping-away, Rind of the 'ohi'a fruit, not a fruit of the upland, A tiny child born as the darkness falls away, A springing child born as the darkness creeps away, Child of the dark and child in the night now here, THE mystery of spirit life born into the body of a dog belongs to the breed described in this chant as dark red (ʻiʻi), brindled (ʻaʻa), and hairless (ʻolohe). . . “Excessive” the word means, perhaps referring to her size of frame. A pun upon the name as Kiaʻi-waʻa, “Canoe-guide,” gives the name Ki-waʻa to the pilot bird that leads a flock of its kind. . . . ——. Far from the remoteness of the sun, far from the remoteness of the night, Here again the thought is European. Hanau kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 418. . . Just as Haumea in folk legend has a part in the Pele myth, so Laʻilaʻiʻs offspring by Kiʻi closely resemble those Hawaiians today called ʻehu people, who are believed to belong to the Pele family from the brown color of their hair and the reddish tint in their skin. . Another feature, common not only to the Kumulipo chant but to all similar prayer chants to the ancestral gods handed down from Hawaiian sources, is the variety of names used for these deities as expressive of their function in the process of generation, so that a single deity may appear under different titles according to the particular aspect under which he or she is worshiped by a given family branch. A third helper was the late Mrs. Pokini Robinson, an old family friend of exceptional qualities of mind belonging to an important chief family of the island of Maui and, although given an English education in a mission household, preserving a constant connection with Hawaiian life and tradition as she knew it in old days under the best native environment and as she followed it through the Hawaiian press. In many ways these stories overlap as if they were variants from a common source. . Stories of the Maui brothers are by no means local to Hawaii alone, but the name Maui-of-the-loincloth for the trickster hero is used, so far as I know, only here and in New Zealand; Maui-tikitiki, -tiʻitiʻi, or -kiʻikiʻi he is commonly called. The lovemaking is developed as a comic relief to the drama of strife against the gods, which is the main theme of Mauiʻs lawless career. . . In 1779 during the temple ceremonies at Kealekekua, Hawaii, at which the Hawaiians ritually welcomed Captain James Cook as the reincarnation of the god of fertility, Lono, and gave him offerings, two priests recited a very long chant “sometimes in concert and sometimes alternately,” according to a listener, Captain James King, who was soon to assume command when Cook's worshippers killed him and then anxiously inquired of Captain King when Lono would again return to them. . Of manuscript texts, the most important after that reproduced by Kalakaua in his printed edition is an unsigned book of genealogies attributed to “Kamokuiki.” The late J. M. Poepoe called this Kamokuiki “one of those who were instructed with David Malo under Auwae, the great genealogist of Kamehamehaʻs last days,” who “filled in the genealogy left incomplete by Malo . . Malo, pp. . . 1779, falls well within known history. Haw. His half-brother Keoua by another mother of inferior rank, the Kane-kapolei who appears as the chiefʻs consort in Kingʻs account under the name of “Kanee-Kabareea,” yielded to treachery. MAKEMSON, MAUD. Hawaiians generally represent Po as a period of darkness and give the word the meaning of night as opposed to day (ao). . 4), pp. pose that Wakea and Papa as parent-pair responsible through Haloa for the spread of mankind over earth had no initial importance for the family whose divine ancestors were commemorated in the Kumulipo prayer chant. From, this point man and wife listed on the Paliku branch lead to Mulinaha and his wife, as below. In Maori myth one cosmogonic account takes the form of a family group like that in the Hawaiian “Chief-who-opened-heaven” to come down to earth and make the beautiful Laʻilaʻi his wife. Moʻolelo Hawaii, p. 36; Fornander, Polynesian Race, I, 188-90; Malo, p. 311; Kepelino, Appendix, p. 182. Hanau kane ia Waiʻololi, o ka wahine ia Waiʻolola, 42. . . A number of different chiefs were called Lono-i-ka-makahiki and they lived at different times. . The early movements of an active youngster are, furthermore, exactly conveyed in the words “wrestler” and “pusher” also suggested by Kawena for the enigmatic line that follows. Every Hawaiian knows the story of how, during the great shark war, when the shark Mikololou was dragged ashore and eaten “all but his tail,” or his “tongue” in some versions, a dog seized the remnant and leaped with it into the sea, whereupon the shark, feeling itself in its native element, resumed its full form. . . . These name chants were composed by Masters of Song who incorporated into them legendary and timely allusions to enhance the glorious name of the family or individual they were celebrating. . . The second aphorism reads I hohole pahiwa ka lau koa and is rendered by Kawena: “She stripped the dark leaves of the koa tree.” The allusion is to the branch of the forest koa tree, the native acacia set up on the altar in a school of the hula dance as a prayer for “courage” (koa). THE FIRST-BORN SON AND THE TABOO . The first investigator, Dorothy B. Barrère, has concluded from a detailed comparison and analysis of several Hawaiian cosmogonic genealogies that the Kumulipo represents the oldest and the one most nearly unaltered in form by later Christian and other influences. . Laʻa came as a younger member of the Moikeha family of North Tahiti, older members of whom had settled earlier in the Hawaiian group. A Fornander note equates Lihauʻula, “a priest of greater renown than any other,” with Kanaloa. “Are you two equal?” asks the poet, and he answers: With such boasts the Oahu peerage sought to discredit the claims of its powerful rival on the island of Hawaii.1, The system of inheritance according to rank has always proved itself one well calculated to stir up discord between rival aspirants. 5. Translation, Bureau of American Ethnology Report 33. 287-88. made clear. Kiaʻi ia e ke ko Punapuna, ko ʻeleʻele, noho i uka, 64. ], Born was the cock, perched on Wakeaʻs back, 1920. 16 . 195-98; Fornander, Collection (“Memoirs,” No. In the case of the Kumulipo a number of such underlying meanings have been proposed, each sufficiently plausible in itself, but difficult of application in relation to the text as a whole. . XXV. The paehumu, if the corrected text is accepted, is the inclosure within the heiau set apart for images, to the right of which stood the prayer scaffold or anuʻu. 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